Walter POHL – Andre GINGRICH (Eds.)


medieval worlds • no. 6 • 2017

Religious Exemption in Pre-Modern Eurasia, C. 300-1300 CE


ISSN 2412-3196
Online Edition

ISBN 978-3-7001-8243-6
Online Edition

 
Open access
Indexed by:  ERIH-PLUS, Crossref, DOAJ, EZB


MEDIEVAL WORLDS provides a new forum for interdisciplinary and transcultural studies of the Middle Ages. Specifically it encourages and links comparative research between different regions and fields and promotes methodological innovation in transdisciplinary studies. Focusing on the Middle Ages (c. 400-1500 CE, but can be extended whenever thematically fruitful or appropriate), MEDIEVAL WORLDS takes a global approach to studying history in a comparative setting.
MEDIEVAL WORLDS is open to regular submissions on comparative topics, but also offers the possibility to propose or advertise subjects that lend themselves to comparison. With a view to connecting people working on related topics in different academic environments, we publish calls for matching articles and for contributions on particular issues.


Table of Contents

Religious Exemption in Pre-Modern Eurasia, c. 300 – 1300 CE: Introduction
Charles West

Treasures in Heaven: Defining the Eurasian Old Regime?
R. I. Moore

Envisioning a No-Man’s Land: Hermitage as a Site of Exemption in Ancient and Early Medieval Indian Literature
Kanad Sinha

Evolving Relationship between the Buddhist Monastic Order and the Imperial States of Medieval China
Mario Poceski

The Normative Character of Monastic Exemption in the Early Medieval Latin West
Kriston R. Rennie

Clerical Exemption in Canon Law from Gratian to the Decretals
Anne J. Duggan

Nothing to Declare: Status, Power and Religious Aspiration in the Policies of Taxation in Ancient India
Ulrich Pagel

Exemption Not Granted: The Confrontation between Buddhism and the Chinese State in Late Antiquity and the ‘First Great Divergence’ Between China and Western Eurasia
Antonello Palumbo

The Political Significance of Gifts of Power in the Khmer and Mercian Kingdoms 793-926
Dominic Goodall and Andrew Wareham

Conversion, Exemption, and Manipulation: Social Benefits and Conversion to Islam in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages
Uriel Simonsohn

Religious Exemption, Justice, and Territories around the Year 1000: The Forgeries of Worms
Thomas Kohl

The Exemption that Proves the Rule: Autonomy and Authority between Alcuin, Theodulf and Charlemagne (802)
Rutger Kramer

From Symbiosis to Separate Spheres? England, 1163
Judith A. Green

Religious Exemption and Global History before 1300 – Closing Comments
Julia McClure

Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
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Tel. +43-1-515 81/DW 3402-3406, Fax +43-1-515 81/DW 3400
https://verlag.oeaw.ac.at, e-mail: verlag@oeaw.ac.at

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medieval worlds • no. 6 • 2017

ISSN 2412-3196
Online Edition

ISBN 978-3-7001-8243-6
Online Edition



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doi:10.1553/medievalworlds_no6_2017s118



Thema: journals
Walter POHL – Andre GINGRICH (Eds.)


medieval worlds • no. 6 • 2017

Religious Exemption in Pre-Modern Eurasia, C. 300-1300 CE


ISSN 2412-3196
Online Edition

ISBN 978-3-7001-8243-6
Online Edition

 
Open access
Indexed by:  ERIH-PLUS, Crossref, DOAJ, EZB

Antonello Palumbo
S.  118 - 155
doi:10.1553/medievalworlds_no6_2017s118

Open access
Abstract:
Starting from the end of the fourth century, the Buddhist monastic community in China entered a protracted confrontation with a variety of political regimes, Sinitic and barbarian, significantly affecting their own processes of state formation and the reconstitution of a unified empire after a long period of division. Although elites and rulers often lavished patronage upon the clergy, and used Buddhism to buttress their authority, the overall response of these regimes, especially in the north, was unforgiving. Four persecutions from 446 to 955 and increasingly tight regulation effectively undermined monastic prerogatives, ultimately thwarting the emergence of a Buddhist ›church‹ in China. The last major episode of suppression intriguingly took place only a few years before the founding of the Song dynasty (960-1279) and China’s subsequent transition towards what many historians have seen as her first modern period. Buddhism did live on in the new era, but as a social body it was terminally hamstrung by the state’s inflexible grip. Comparing this trajectory to the fortunes of Christianity in the late antique Mediterranean and then in early medieval Europe raises several counterfactual questions. One of the most important perhaps concerns the long-term effect that religious exemption, or the lack thereof, respectively had on imperial state formation on the two sides, in what Walter Scheidel has called the ›First Great Divergence‹ between China and Western Eurasia. Whether the rise of the Christian church with its privileges may have decisively stood in the way of an imperial resurgence in the West is an already old question; but whether, conversely, the Chinese state’s successful confrontation with Buddhism was key to its extraordinary endurance as an imperial entity is a still largely unexplored avenue of inquiry, which this paper intends to probe.

Keywords:  China; Buddhism; Late Antiquity; Great Divergence; taxation; religious exemption; population registration; imperial formation
Published Online:  2017/12/01 11:44:00
Object Identifier:  0xc1aa5576 0x00372f23

MEDIEVAL WORLDS provides a new forum for interdisciplinary and transcultural studies of the Middle Ages. Specifically it encourages and links comparative research between different regions and fields and promotes methodological innovation in transdisciplinary studies. Focusing on the Middle Ages (c. 400-1500 CE, but can be extended whenever thematically fruitful or appropriate), MEDIEVAL WORLDS takes a global approach to studying history in a comparative setting.
MEDIEVAL WORLDS is open to regular submissions on comparative topics, but also offers the possibility to propose or advertise subjects that lend themselves to comparison. With a view to connecting people working on related topics in different academic environments, we publish calls for matching articles and for contributions on particular issues.


Table of Contents

Religious Exemption in Pre-Modern Eurasia, c. 300 – 1300 CE: Introduction
Charles West

Treasures in Heaven: Defining the Eurasian Old Regime?
R. I. Moore

Envisioning a No-Man’s Land: Hermitage as a Site of Exemption in Ancient and Early Medieval Indian Literature
Kanad Sinha

Evolving Relationship between the Buddhist Monastic Order and the Imperial States of Medieval China
Mario Poceski

The Normative Character of Monastic Exemption in the Early Medieval Latin West
Kriston R. Rennie

Clerical Exemption in Canon Law from Gratian to the Decretals
Anne J. Duggan

Nothing to Declare: Status, Power and Religious Aspiration in the Policies of Taxation in Ancient India
Ulrich Pagel

Exemption Not Granted: The Confrontation between Buddhism and the Chinese State in Late Antiquity and the ‘First Great Divergence’ Between China and Western Eurasia
Antonello Palumbo

The Political Significance of Gifts of Power in the Khmer and Mercian Kingdoms 793-926
Dominic Goodall and Andrew Wareham

Conversion, Exemption, and Manipulation: Social Benefits and Conversion to Islam in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages
Uriel Simonsohn

Religious Exemption, Justice, and Territories around the Year 1000: The Forgeries of Worms
Thomas Kohl

The Exemption that Proves the Rule: Autonomy and Authority between Alcuin, Theodulf and Charlemagne (802)
Rutger Kramer

From Symbiosis to Separate Spheres? England, 1163
Judith A. Green

Religious Exemption and Global History before 1300 – Closing Comments
Julia McClure



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Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
Austrian Academy of Sciences Press
A-1011 Wien, Dr. Ignaz Seipel-Platz 2
Tel. +43-1-515 81/DW 3402-3406, Fax +43-1-515 81/DW 3400
https://verlag.oeaw.ac.at, e-mail: verlag@oeaw.ac.at